Rabu, 15 Oktober 2014

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice.
Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An example is using acupuncture to help with side effects of cancer treatment.
Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. An example is treating heart disease with chelation therapy (which seeks to remove excess metals from the blood) instead of using a standard approach.
The claims that CAM treatment providers make can sound promising. However, researchers do not know how safe many CAM treatments are or how well they work. Studies are underway to determine the safety and usefulness of many CAM practices.
To minimize the health risks of a CAM treatment

  • Discuss it with your doctor. It might have side effects or interact with other medicines
  • Find out what the research says about it
  • Choose CAM practitioners carefullyl
And then, monitor your health. Be sensitive by your sign to avoid the side effect of your medicine.


Minggu, 15 Juni 2014

The physical exam may show the location and size of the tumor(s) and the spread of the cancer to the lymph nodes and/or to other tissues and organs.
Imaging studies produce pictures of areas inside the body. These studies are important tools in determining stage. Procedures such as x-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans can show the location of the cancer, the size of the tumor, and whether the cancer has spread.
Laboratory tests are studies of blood, urine, other fluids, and tissues taken from the body. For example, tests for liver function and tumor markers (substances sometimes found in increased amounts if cancer is present) can provide information about the cancer.
Pathology reports may include information about the size of the tumor, the growth of the tumor into other tissues and organs, the type of cancer cells, and the grade of the tumor. A biopsy may be performed to provide information for the pathology report. Cytology reports also describe findings from the examination of cells in body fluids.
Surgical reports tell what is found during surgery. These reports describe the size and appearance of the tumor and often include observations about lymph nodes and nearby organs.

Jumat, 02 Mei 2014

Cancer is rare in teens. Certain diseases like breast cancer usually affect adult women — teen girls are unlikely to get this form of cancer. But some types are more likely to occur in teens. Testicular cancer, for example, tends to affect younger guys rather than older men.
The types of cancers teens get have one thing in common: cells growing in an uncontrolled way. Cells are the basic components or "building blocks" of the human body. Cancer occurs when cells develop abnormally and grow in an uncontrolled way. Read on to learn more about some types of cancer that teens may get, including warning signs and symptoms and how these cancers can be treated.

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma (pronounced: os-tee-oh-sahr-KOH-muh) is the most common type of bone cancer. In teens, it can sometimes appear during their growth spurts and tends to show up in people who are taller than average. In most cases, there is no known cause for osteosarcoma.
The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma are pain and swelling in an arm or leg that is sometimes accompanied by a lump. Some people have more pain at night or when they exercise. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the bones around the knee but can occur in other bones as well. In some cases, a tumor can spread or metastasize (when cells from a tumor break away from the original cancer site and travel to a different tissue or organ) to the lungs and other bones.
Treatment for osteosarcoma usually involves chemotherapy(medication that kills cancer cells) as well as surgery to remove the tumor. A doctor may perform limb-salvage surgery, where the bone that has cancer is removed and the limb (usually an arm or leg) is saved from amputation by filling the gap with a bone graft or special metal rod. In other cases, a doctor may need to amputate (remove) part or all of the limb to fight the cancer.
Losing a limb can be devastating, especially for teens who are already dealing with body changes. Counseling and physical therapy (or physical rehabilitation) can both be helpful in this situation. People who have amputations are usually fitted with a prosthesis (pronounced: pros-THEE-sis), or artificial limb. Most teens with a prosthesis are able to return to normal activities, even sports.
Most people develop side effects, such as hair loss, bleeding, infections, and heart or skin problems, from medicines used in chemotherapy treatment for osteosarcoma. Chemotherapy may also increase the person's risk of developing other cancers in the future. The good news is that most teens with osteosarcoma do recover.

The process of finding out how far the cancer has spread is called staging. Information from exams and diagnostic tests is used to determine the size of the tumor, how deeply the tumor has invaded tissues within and around the cervix, and the spread to lymph nodes or distant organs (metastasis). The cervical cancer stage is an important process because the stage of the cancer is the key factor in selecting the right treatment plan.

The stage of a cancer does not change over time, even if the cancer progresses. A cancer that comes back or spreads is still referred to by the stage it was given when it was first found and diagnosed, only information about the current extent of the cancer is added. A person keeps the same diagnosis stage, but more information is added to the diagnosis to explain the current disease status.
A staging system is a way for members of the cancer care team to summarize the extent of a cancer's spread. The 2 systems used for staging most types of cervical cancer, the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) system and the AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) TNM staging system, are very similar. Gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists use the FIGO system, but the AJCC system is included here to be complete. The AJCC system classifies cervical cancer on the basis of 3 factors: the extent of the tumor (T), whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes (N) and whether it has spread to distant sites (M). The FIGO system uses the same information. The system described below is the most recent AJCC system, which went into effect January 2010. Any differences between the AJCC system and the FIGO system are explained in the text.
This system classifies the disease in stages 0 through IV. Staging is based on clinical rather than surgical findings. This means that the extent of disease is evaluated by the doctor's physical examination and a few other tests that are done in some cases, such as cystoscopy and proctoscopy − it is not based on the findings at surgery.
When surgery is done, it might show that the cancer has spread more than the doctors first thought. This new information could change the treatment plan, but it does not change the patient's stage.

Selasa, 29 April 2014

Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery,radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some may involve hormone therapy, biologic therapy, or stem cell transplantation.